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The agroclimate of Odisha state is very favourable for different long and short duration fruits. Under long duration fruits Coconut, Cashewnut, Mango, Sapota, Jackfruit, Orange, K.Lime, Litchi are most important crops. Similarly, fruits like Banana, Papaya and Pineapple are the prominent short duration fruit crops.
The distribution of these crops in different parts of Odisha is based on specific agroclimatic requirement of the crop.

Coconut :
Odisha enjoys 450 kms. of coastal belt most suitable for Coconut plantation. This traditional area is predominant of tall varieties of coconut which thrive for more than 100 years and start fruiting from 4th to 8th year depending on its maintenance . Under non-traditional areas, the basin of river Bainsadhara in Rayagada and some valleys in different inland districts are found to be suitable for the crops. The productivity of such plants are comparatively less than the crops in traditional areas. At present the coverage under coconut is 28,986 hectares with average annual production of 33 nuts per palm. Coconut is considered as the cash crop of more than 10 lakh people residing in the coastal belt. The crop has multifarious uses and provides Oil, Copra, Drinks, Fuel, and raw materials for coir industry.

Mango :
Mango, the king of fruits is found in all most all over the State of Odisha. There are innumerable varieties of traditionally grown elite and country mangoes. Since last 20 years the Department of Horticulture has taken massive drive for commercial cultivation of mango by introducing commercial varieties both from North and South India as well as hybrids. Mango is also a favorite crop of the tribals in Odisha, who utilise dehydrated green mangoes and mango leather by sun drying the pulp. The kernels are used as statchy food by the tribals. Prominent commercial mango varieties are Bombay Green, Fazil, Langra, Banganpalli, Totapuri, Lat sundari, Amprapalli, Malika and Chausa etc. The total existing area under the crop is 96,228 hectares in the State. The crop has alternate bearing habits for which the production varies widely from year to year.

Kagzi lime :
It is a prominent fruit crop grown in specific areas of Keonjhar, Ganjam, Gajapati, Koraput and Dhenkanal districts. Lime is also an important fruit crop of the tribals. It is very popular for its medicinal value . The crop is grown in 13,275 hectares and produces 1,33,000 MT of fruits. It has wide range of varieties ranging from thin skinned K.Lime to thick skinned table type lemons.

Jackfruits :
This another long duration fruit tree thriving for centuries. The crop is widely grown in Phulbani, Koraput, Ganjam and Kalahandi districts. In other districts the crop is found sporadically. Jackfruit was introduced by Britishers in tribal pockets of Odisha. The fruits are consumed in its different stages. The timber is also used for furnitures and in building works.

Orange :
Mandarin hill orange grown in Rayagada block of Gajapati district and Niyamgiri hills of Rayagada district akin to khasi orange. Areas in Angul, Athamallik of Dhenkanal district and Pallahara of Angul district are suitable for Nagapur mandarins. The crop is grown in 9039 hectares of land and the production is 43,000 MT. Tribals of Niyamgiri hill is Eastern Ghat are traditional orange growers in 6,000 hectares.

Other fruits:
Litchi, Coconut, Pomegranate, Custard apple, Ber, Aonla are other tropical fruits grown in the state but in limited acreage.



Banana :
The state has potentiality for both tall and dwarf banana varieties. The dwarf varieties are more prominent in inland districts while the tall varieties are widely grown in coastal tracts. Patakapura variety of banana belonging to Northman group is a traditional variety of Puri district. The fruits are more delicious and highly qualitative with poor keeping quality. This variety fetches very high prices in the market than the other types. The verities is very specific to the particular agroclimate. Under tall varieties, Champa & Chini Champa, Chakrakelli are improved types. Dwarf cavendish, Robusta, Srimanta are dwarf types grown successfully in commercial scale in the state. There are several hill bananas grown by tribals along the hill streams. The verities are Muguni, Bukuphata, Podasingha, Birupakhi etc. There are several verities of culinary types of Banana like Bantal, Gaja Bantal , Paunsia Bantal, Mendhi Bantal etc. Banana is considered as the most auspicious plant and the fruits are use for offering to Hindu Deities. Banana is produced in a total area of 24,700 ha. which approximate production 2.80 lakh M.T.

Papaya and pineapple are two important short duration improved fruits grown through out the state. Approximate area covered is about 20,000 ha.

Production of Quality Planting Materials :
The Department of Horticulture is having 98 progeny orchards located in different districts where grafts, gootees and seedlings are raised from progeny plants for distribution to the farmers and subsided price. It has potentiality for producing 35 lakhs of planting materials. The present level of production is about 25 lakhs of Mango, Sapota, Coconut seedlings, Kagzilime & Other fruit seedlings.

Vegetables :
ODISHA ranks 2nd position as far as production of vegetable is concerned in National level. The per capita consumption of vegetables in the state is highest in the country. There is potentiality for growing all types of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate vegetable. Sub-tropical and temperate vegetable like Tomato, Capsicum, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knolkhol, Carrot, Beat, Pea, Beans, Potato are confined to winter season. Other tropical vegetables like Brinjal, Bhendi, Cucumber, Watermelon, Gourds are grown through the year. Some parts of Koraput, Keonjhar, Gajapati and Khandamal districts are growing above sub-tropical vegetables during summer and monsoon as off season vegetables. Several vegetables are also grown in riverbeds where the water flow and depth of water level is congenial during winter and summer months. Potato, watermelon , Onion, Gourd are important vegetables for riverbed cultivation. The total area under vegetable cultivation during different season is indicated below:


Area ( ha.)


A. Rabi vagetable

4.33 lakhs

49.00 lakh MT

B. Kharif vegetable

2.37 lakhs

30.00 lakh MT

C. Summer vegetable

1.18 lakhs

21.00 lakh MT

Potato :
Potato is the most popular vegetable of the rich and poor . It is grown through out the state as winter season vegetables. There is also potentiality for this crop to be grown during monsoon in Koraput, Phulbani nad Keonjhar districts. The coverage is about 17,760 ha. and the production is 2,48,640 MT. There is wide gap between the demand and production in the state. Government have taken special drive to increase the production of potato by expanding is crop area and productivity through supply of certified and foundation stock of seed potatoes to the farmers at subsidised price. The state is having 59 nos. of cold storages with 1,16,370 MT of storage capacity.

Onion :
Although Onion is suitably grown through out the state but there are traditional pockets for commercial cultivation for the district of Angul, Sonepur, Boudh, Kalahandi, Khariar and Dhenkanal. The production is 3.59 lakh MT out of 46,400 ha. of crop coverage. There are little facilities in the State for storage of onion. Most of the harvested crops are transported to other states having better storage facilities. Both traditional, Multiplier and improved bulb types of onion are grown in the state.

Spices :
Turmeric, Ginger are two most important spices crops grown in the state, specifically by the tribals. Turmeric is a cash crop grown by Kondha types of Kandhamal district and Langi Kondha of Gajapati district. The crop is grown with organic manures without any chemical fertilisers by the tribals by their indigenous methods of crop production. It has now attracted the attention of foreign markets. The production of these crops is being increased by integrating indigenous and modern technology. Improved varieties like Roma, Surama, Lacdone, ranga, rasmi are being introduced and the produces are hygienically processed by adopting improved technology. The state is surplus in turmeric production. The total area under this crop is 26,800 ha. with production of 64,320 MT.

Ginger :
This is another improved spice crop of the state mostly grown by the tribsalds in some specific agroclimatic zones. The crop is mostly produced organically and the farmers get a good return out of this crop. During recent years after introduction of improved varieties like Suprava, Suravi, Suruchi, its commercial cultivation has taken a momentum. The state produces 26,905MT of Ginger from 13,520 ha. of land. Expert of organically produced by Dry Ginger has commenced from current year, with high appreciation .

Other Spices :
Chilli, Black Peper, Cinnamon are some of the spices grown in different part of the state for domestic market.

Floriculture :
The state has entered in to the commercial cultivation of flowers very recently to meet its domestic market demands. Marigold, Tuberose, Gladiolus, Jasmine, Chrysanthemum. Lotus and Champa are important flowers grown through out the State, specifically around the townships. The state still depends largely on neighbouring states as far as its demand is concerned. Kewda flowers mostly collected from Ganjam district is very famous for extraction of essential oil. The state gets more than Rs.5.00 crores out of this crop annually from 3-4 blocks of Ganjam district.

Oil-Plam :
The Oil-Palm which produces highest tonnage of edible oil per hectare has been introduced in the state in the year 1994-95. So far 1491 ha. of Oil-palm have been planted in the field. The crop is successfully grown in Gajapati, Rayagada, Dhenkanal and Sundergarh district. There is further programme for raising in 650 ha. during 2001-02 for which seedlings are being raised in departmental Nurseries by importing 263 lakh. Oil-palm sprouted seeds from out side the state.
The Government of India have considered for installation of an Oil-Palm Mill demonstration unit with 250 MT FFB capacity.

Drip Irrigation:
Adoption of Drip Irrigation system in Arid zone fruits is a new concept in the state, introduced since 1994-95. So far 2121 ha. of Mango, Sapota, Kagzilime, banana, Guava, Oil palm crops have been provided with drip irrigation system. This system of irrigation has gained momentum and farmers are showing their interest for this system.
Sprinkler irrigation is also ticking up for several commercial crops like vegetables and betel vine crop and nurseries. Use of plastic in agriculture is gradually finding its place as far as soil moisture management is concerned.

Mushroom Cultivation:
Paddy straw Mushroom and Oyster Mushroom are improved type grown under natural conditions in the state. The demand for these types of Mushroom in different towns of the State has increased substantially. Several unemployed youths, marginal and small farmers have taken this as good enterprises. Several spawn production units have come up in different localities to meet the spawn requirement of the farmers.

Climate - The climate of the state is sub-tropical in nature with dry summer (max temp. 42 ° C ) and hot and humid wet season . Monsoon rains starts towards the second week of June and lasts up to the second week of October. Average annual rainfall is 1502 mm with 73 rainy days. The winter is mild with minimum temperature of 8° C.

Soils : The Soil of ODISHA differ widely from highly acidic to slightly alkaline and from light sandy to stiff clay. The soils are mainly acidic with degree of acidity varying widely.

Water Resources: Availability of water resources is associated at 15.1 million hectare metre ( m ha m) including the water yield ( 3.7 m ha m) from the area outside the state. Availability of surface water has been assessed to be 7.0 m ha m and that of ground water is 1.9 m ha m. Irrigation potential created by the end of 1999-00 is for 2.48 million ha in wet season. The sourcewise break up is as follows.


Potential Created (In million hect)

Major & Medium


Minor (Flow)


Minor (Lift)






Land Use Pattern:

The state has a cultivated area (net area sown + current fallow) of 6.4 m. hect. as against Geographical area of 15.5 m. hect. out of which 2.9 m.hect. are high land 1.9 m.hect medium land and 1.6 m.hect low lands. The Gross cropped area is 8.4 million ha. And the cropping intensity is 139%. The land use pattern in the state is as follows.

Area Type

Area in million hects.


Forest area



Net sown area



Misc Trees and Groves



Permanent Pasture



Culturable waste



Land put to non-agril uses



Barren & unculturable waste



Current fallow



Other fallow



Area of operational holdings
Small and marginal holdings constitute 80% of the total operational holdings in the state . But the operational area held by them is only 47%.

Crops :
Kharif is the main cropping season of the state lasting from April to September. This coincides with the monsoon season when most of the rainfall is received. Crops are also grown during rabi season (From October to March) utilizing irrigation facilities, residual moisture in the soil.Rice is the major crop of the state occupying 53% of cropped area and contributing 69% of foodgrains. In an year of normal rainfall, the state can produce 6.6 m.tons of rice.


  • Odisha is the secondary origin of rice ( Jeypore tract)

  • A number of aromatric rice with finer quality are available in the state

  • Export quality turmeric and ginger are cultivated in Koraput & Phulbani

  • An elite line of rice developed in SAO and released as santep heep i.e. place in Cambodia

  • State is a pool of rice, mango and brinjal germ plasm

  • Organic farming of ginger and turmeric by the tribal farmers has started in Phulbani district which can be converted into an " Organic District

  • "Agricultural Policy" launched in the state during 1996


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